Random anti-reflecting subwavelength surface structures (rARSS) have been shown to suppress Fresnel reflection and scatter from optical surfaces. The structures effectively function as a gradient-refractive-index at the substrate boundary, and the spectral transmission properties of the boundary have been shown to depend on the structure’s statistical properties (diameter, height, and density.) We fabricated rARSS on fused silica substrates using gold masking. A thin layer of gold was deposited on the surface of the substrate and then subjected to a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process at various temperatures. This RTA process resulted in the formation of gold “islands” on the surface of the substrate, which then acted as a mask while the substrate was dry etched in a reactive ion etching (RIE) process. The plasma etch yielded a fused silica surface covered with randomly arranged “rods” that act as the anti-reflective layer. We present data relating the physical characteristics of the gold “island” statistical populations, and the resulting rARSS “rod” population, as well as, optical scattering losses and spectral transmission properties of the final surfaces. We focus on comparing results between samples processed at different RTA temperatures, as well as samples fabricated without undergoing RTA, to relate fabrication process statistics to transmission enhancement values.