To simulate the human neurovasculature in the Circle of Willis, patient-based phantoms with aneurysms were 3D printed using a Objet Eden 260V printer. Anthropomorphic head phantoms and a human skull combined with acrylic plates simulated human head bone anatomy and x-ray attenuation. For dynamic studies the 3D printed phantom was connected to a pulsatile flow loop with the anthropomorphic phantom underneath. By combining different 3D printed phantoms and the anthropomorphic phantoms, different patient pathologies can be simulated. For static studies a 3D printed neurovascular phantom was embedded inside a human skull and used as a positional reference for treatment devices such as stents. To simulate tissue attenuation acrylic layers were added. Different combinations can simulate different patient treatment procedures.
The Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) based High Resolution Fluoroscope (HRF) with 75μm pixels offers an advantage over the state-of-the-art 200 μm pixel Flat Panel Detector (FPD) due to higher Nyquist frequency and better DQE performance. Whether this advantage is clinically useful during an actual clinical neurovascular intervention can be addressed by qualitatively evaluating images from a cohort of various cases performed using both detectors. The above-mentioned method can offer a realistic substitute for an actual clinical procedure. Also a large cohort of cases can be generated and used for a HRF clinical utility determination study.