Here, we will address two central questions in EUV resist research: (1) How many electrons are generated per EUV photon absorption? (2) By which mechanisms do these electrons interact and react with molecules in the resist? We will use this framework to evaluate the contributions of electron trapping and hole initiated chemistry to acid production in chemically amplified photoresists, with specific emphasis on the interdependence of these mechanisms. We will show measurements of acid yield from direct bulk electrolysis of PAGs and EUV exposures of PAGs in phenolic and nonphenolic polymers to narrow down the mechanistic possibilities in chemically amplified resists.
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Amrit Narasimhan, Steven Grzeskowiak, Christian Ackerman, Tracy Flynn, Greg Denbeaux, Robert L. Brainard, "Mechanisms of EUV exposure: electrons and holes," Proc. SPIE 10143, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VIII, 101430W (27 March 2017);