21 March 2017 High throughput nanoimprint lithography for semiconductor memory applications
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Abstract
Imprint lithography is a promising technology for replication of nano-scale features. For semiconductor device applications, Canon deposits a low viscosity resist on a field by field basis using jetting technology. A patterned mask is lowered into the resist fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate.

There are two critical components to meeting throughput requirements for imprint lithography. Using a similar approach to what is already done for many deposition and etch processes, imprint stations can be clustered to enhance throughput. The FPA-1200NZ2C is a four station cluster system designed for high volume manufacturing.

For a single station, throughput includes overhead, resist dispense, resist fill time (or spread time), exposure and separation. Resist exposure time and mask/wafer separation are well understood processing steps with typical durations on the order of 0.10 to 0.20 seconds. To achieve a total process throughput of 17 wafers per hour (wph) for a single station, it is necessary to complete the fluid fill step in 1.2 seconds. For a throughput of 20 wph, fill time must be reduced to only one 1.1 seconds.

There are several parameters that can impact resist filling. Key parameters include resist drop volume (smaller is better), system controls (which address drop spreading after jetting), Design for Imprint or DFI (to accelerate drop spreading) and material engineering (to promote wetting between the resist and underlying adhesion layer). In addition, it is mandatory to maintain fast filling, even for edge field imprinting. In this paper, we address the improvements made in all of these parameters to first enable a 1.20 second filling process for a device like pattern and have demonstrated this capability for both full fields and edge fields. Non-fill defectivity is well under 1.0 defects/cm2 for both field types. Next, by further reducing drop volume and optimizing drop patterns, a fill time of 1.1 seconds was demonstrated.
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Zhengmao Ye, Wei Zhang, Niyaz Khusnatdinov, Tim Stachowiak, J. W. Irving, Whitney Longsine, Matthew Traub, Brian Fletcher, Weijun Liu, "High throughput nanoimprint lithography for semiconductor memory applications", Proc. SPIE 10144, Emerging Patterning Technologies, 1014408 (21 March 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2260466; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2260466
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