27 March 2017 Analytical techniques for mechanistic characterization of EUV photoresists
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Abstract
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV, ~13.5 nm) lithography is the prospective technology for high volume manufacturing by the microelectronics industry. Significant strides towards achieving adequate EUV source power and availability have been made recently, but a limited rate of improvement in photoresist performance still delays the implementation of EUV. Many fundamental questions remain to be answered about the exposure mechanisms of even the relatively well understood chemically amplified EUV photoresists. Moreover, several groups around the world are developing revolutionary metal-based resists whose EUV exposure mechanisms are even less understood. Here, we describe several evaluation techniques to help elucidate mechanistic details of EUV exposure mechanisms of chemically amplified and metal-based resists. EUV absorption coefficients are determined experimentally by measuring the transmission through a resist coated on a silicon nitride membrane. Photochemistry can be evaluated by monitoring small outgassing reaction products to provide insight into photoacid generator or metal-based resist reactivity. Spectroscopic techniques such as thin-film Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can measure the chemical state of a photoresist system pre- and post-EUV exposure. Additionally, electrolysis can be used to study the interaction between photoresist components and low energy electrons. Collectively, these techniques improve our current understanding of photomechanisms for several EUV photoresist systems, which is needed to develop new, better performing materials needed for high volume manufacturing.
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Steven Grzeskowiak, Amrit Narasimhan, Michael Murphy, Christian Ackerman, Jake Kaminsky, Robert L. Brainard, Greg Denbeaux, "Analytical techniques for mechanistic characterization of EUV photoresists", Proc. SPIE 10146, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXIV, 101462C (27 March 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2274128; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2274128
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