We analyzed the field contrast, aspect ratio, pattern uniformity as well as the line-edge roughness (LER) of the patterns
fabricated in plasmonic lithography. Deep subwavelength patterns with high aspect-ratio and large-area uniformity
were achieved by coupling the evanescent waves into an optical waveguide as well as the selection of a single high
spatial frequency mode. In addition, the impacts of defects on photomasks and the surface roughness on thin films are
studied in two exemplary plasmonic lithography systems: superlens and hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM). Superlens
is capable of replicating arbitrary patterns, which also inherently make it vulnerable to roughness of the thin film and
imperfections on the mask; while HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its spatial frequency
selection function property.