With the progress of quantitative remote sensing, the acquisition of surface BRDF becomes more and more important. In order to improve the accuracy of the surface BRDF measurements, a VNIR-SWIR Bidirectional Reflectance Automatic Measurement System, which was developed by Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (HIPS), is introduced that allows in situ measurements of hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance data. Hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function data sets taken with the BRDF automatic measurement system nominally cover the spectral range between 390 and 2390 nm in 971 bands. In July 2007, September 2008, June 2011, we acquired a series of the BRDF data covered Dunhuang radiometric calibration test site in terms of the BRDF measurement system. We have not obtained such comprehensive and accurate data as they are, since 1990s when the site was built up. These data are applied to calibration for FY-2 and other satellites sensors. Field BRDF data of a Dunhuang site surface reveal a strong spectral variability. An anisotropy factor (ANIF), defined as the ratio between the directional reflectance and nadir reflectance over the hemisphere, is introduced as a surrogate measurement for the extent of spectral BRDF effects. The ANIF data show a very high correlation with the solar zenith angle due to multiple scattering effects over a desert site. Since surface geometry, multiple scattering, and BRDF effects are related, these findings may help to derive BRDF model parameters from the in-situ BRDF measurement remotely sensed hyperspectral data sets.