Recently, the development of high-speed railway meets the requirement of society booming and it has gradually become the first choice for long-length journey. Since ensuring the safety and stable operation are of great importance to high-speed trains owing to its unique features, vibration analysis checking is one of main means to be adopted. Due to the popularization of Smartphone, in this research, a novel public-participating method to achieve high-speed railway’s vibration analysis checking based on smartphone and an inspection application of high-speed railway line built in the intelligent mobile terminal were proposed. Utilizing the accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS and other high-performance sensors which were integrated in smartphone, the application can obtain multiple parameters like acceleration, angle, etc and pinpoint the location. Therefore, through analyzing the acceleration data in time domain and frequency domain using fast Fourier transform, the research compared much of data from monitoring tests under different measure conditions and measuring points. Furthermore, an idea of establishing a system about analysis checking was outlined in paper. It has been validated that the smartphone-based high-speed railway line inspection system is reliable and feasible on the high-speed railway lines. And it has more advantages, such as convenience, low cost and being widely used. Obviously, the research has important practical significance and broad application prospects.