12 April 2017 Optimal control of build height utilizing optical profilometry in cold spray deposits
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Part-to-part variability and poor part quality due to failure to maintain geometric specifications pose a challenge for adopting Additive Manufacturing (AM) as a viable manufacturing process. In recent years, In-process Monitoring and Control (InPMC) has received a lot of attention as an approach to overcome these obstacles. The ability to sense geometry of the deposited layers accurately enables effective process monitoring and control of AM application. This paper demonstrates an application of geometry sensing technique for the coating deposition Cold Spray process, where solid powders are accelerated through a nozzle, collides with the substrate and adheres to it. Often the deposited surface has shape irregularities. This paper proposes an approach to suppress the iregularities by controlling the deposition height. An analytical control-oriented model is developed that expresses the resulting height of deposit as an integral function of nozzle velocity and angle. In order to obtain height information at each layer, a Micro-Epsilon laser line scanner was used for surface profiling after each deposition. This surface profile information, specifically the layer height, was then fed back to an optimal control algorithm which manipulated the nozzle speed to control the layer height to a pre specified height. While the problem is heavily nonlinear, we were able to transform it into equivalent Optimal Control problem linear w.r.t. input. That enabled development of two solution methods: one is fast and approximate, while another is more accurate but still efficient.
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Abhijit Chakraborty, Abhijit Chakraborty, Sergey Shishkin, Sergey Shishkin, Michael J. Birnkrant, Michael J. Birnkrant, } "Optimal control of build height utilizing optical profilometry in cold spray deposits", Proc. SPIE 10168, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems 2017, 101683H (12 April 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2259997; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2259997

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