Biophotonics involves understanding how light interacts with biological matter, from molecules and cells, to tissues and even whole organisms. Light can be used to probe biomolecular events, such as gene expression and protein–protein interaction, with impressively high sensitivity and specificity. The spatial and temporal distribution of biochemical constituents can also be visualized with light and, thus, the corresponding physiological dynamics in living cells, tissues, and organisms in real time. Computer-based Monte Carlo (MC) models of light transport in turbid media take a different approach. In this paper, the optical and structural properties of biomaterials discussed. We explain the numerical simulationmethod used for studying the optical properties of biomaterials. Applications of the Monte-Carlo method in photodynamic therapy, skin tissue optics, and bioimaging described.