5 May 2017 On the creation of high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data from multi-temporal low spatial resolution imagery
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Abstract
The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission aims to provide global imaging spectroscopy data to the benefit of especially ecosystem studies. The onboard spectrometer will collect radiance spectra from the visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) regions (400-2500 nm). The mission calls for fine spectral resolution (10 nm band width) and as such will enable scientists to perform material characterization, species classification, and even sub-pixel mapping. However, the global coverage requirement results in a relatively low spatial resolution (GSD 30m), which restricts applications to objects of similar scales. We therefore have focused on the assessment of sub-pixel vegetation structure from spectroscopy data in past studies. In this study, we investigate the development or reconstruction of higher spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data via fusion of multi-temporal data sets to address the drawbacks implicit in low spatial resolution imagery.

The projected temporal resolution of the HyspIRI VSWIR instrument is 15 days, which implies that we have access to as many as six data sets for an area over the course of a growth season. Previous studies have shown that select vegetation structural parameters, e.g., leaf area index (LAI) and gross ecosystem production (GEP), are relatively constant in summer and winter for temperate forests; we therefore consider the data sets collected in summer to be from a similar, stable forest structure. The first step, prior to fusion, involves registration of the multi-temporal data. A data fusion algorithm then can be applied to the pre-processed data sets. The approach hinges on an algorithm that has been widely applied to fuse RGB images. Ideally, if we have four images of a scene which all meet the following requirements - i) they are captured with the same camera configurations; ii) the pixel size of each image is x; and iii) at least r2 images are aligned on a grid of x/r - then a high-resolution image, with a pixel size of x/r, can be reconstructed from the multi-temporal set.

The algorithm was applied to data from NASA's classic Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C; GSD 18m), collected between 2013-2015 (summer and fall) over our study area (NEON's Southwest Pacific Domain; Fresno, CA) to generate higher spatial resolution imagery (GSD 9m). The reconstructed data set was validated via comparison to NEON's imaging spectrometer (NIS) data (GSD 1m). The results showed that algorithm worked well with the AVIRIS-C data and could be applied to the HyspIRI data.
Conference Presentation
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Wei Yao, Jan van Aardt, David Messinger, "On the creation of high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data from multi-temporal low spatial resolution imagery", Proc. SPIE 10198, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXIII, 1019814 (5 May 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2262521; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262521
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