The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between
the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop
(and incorporate) a technical Open Systems Architecture standard in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and
platform affordability, re-configurability, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively
create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus
on the development of a modular decomposition (defining functions and behaviors) and associated key interfaces
(physical and logical) for common multi-purpose architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and Communications.
SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The modular decomposition will produce a set
of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender reusable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a
realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed
hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces. To this end, SOSA will leverage existing
standards as much as possible and evolve the SOSA architecture through modification, reuse, and enhancements to
achieve C4ISR goals. This paper will present accomplishments over the first year of SOSA initiative.
This paper will present the results of an investigation into requirements for existing software and hardware solutions for open
digital communication architectures that support weapon subsystem integration. The underlying requirements of such a
communication architecture would be to achieve the lowest latency possible at a reasonable cost point with respect to the mission
objective of the weapon. The determination of the latency requirements of the open architecture software and hardware were
derived through the use of control system and stability margins analyses. Studies were performed on the throughput and latency
of different existing communication transport methods. The two architectures that were tested in this study include Data
Distribution Service (DDS) and Modular Open Network Architecture (MONARCH). This paper defines what levels of latency
can be achieved with current technology and how this capability may translate to future weapons. The requirements moving
forward within communications solutions are discussed.
The Mission Systems Open Architecture Science and Technology (MOAST) program is an AFRL effort that is
developing and demonstrating Open System Architecture (OSA) component prototypes, along with methods and tools,
to strategically evolve current OSA standards and technical approaches, promote affordable capability evolution,
reduce integration risk, and address emerging challenges . Within the context of open architectures, the program
is conducting advanced research and concept development in the following areas: (1) Evolution of standards; (2)
Cyber-Resiliency; (3) Emerging Concepts and Technologies; (4) Risk Reduction Studies and Experimentation; and
(5) Advanced Technology Demonstrations. Current research includes the development of methods, tools, and
techniques to characterize the performance of OMS data interconnection methods for representative mission system
applications. Of particular interest are the OMS Critical Abstraction Layer (CAL), the Avionics Service Bus (ASB),
and the Bulk Data Transfer interconnects, as well as to develop and demonstrate cybersecurity countermeasures
techniques to detect and mitigate cyberattacks against open architecture based mission systems and ensure continued
mission operations. Focus is on cybersecurity techniques that augment traditional cybersecurity controls and those
currently defined within the Open Mission System and UCI standards. AFRL is also developing code generation tools
and simulation tools to support evaluation and experimentation of OSA-compliant implementations.
We present an introduction to model based design. Model based design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. Model based design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. Model based design’s philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. Model based design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in model based design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use model based design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a model based design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.
Open architecture in the context of defense applications encourages collaboration across government agencies and
academia. This paper describes a success story in the implementation of an open architecture framework that fosters
transparency and modularity in the context of Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE),
a complex physics-based software package for modeling the effects of terrain and atmospheric conditions on signal
propagation and sensor performance. Among the highlighted features in this paper are: (1) a code refactorization to
separate sensitive parts of EASEE, thus allowing collaborators the opportunity to view and interact with non-sensitive
parts of the EASEE framework with the end goal of supporting collaborative innovation, (2) a data exchange and
validation effort to enable the dynamic addition of signatures within EASEE thus supporting a modular notion that
components can be easily added or removed to the software without requiring recompilation by developers, and (3) a
flexible and extensible XML interface, which aids in decoupling graphical user interfaces from EASEE’s calculation
engine, and thus encourages adaptability to many different defense applications. In addition to the outlined points above,
this paper also addresses EASEE’s ability to interface with both proprietary systems such as ArcGIS. A specific use case
regarding the implementation of an ArcGIS toolbar that leverages EASEE’s XML interface and enables users to set up
an EASEE-compliant configuration for probability of detection or optimal sensor placement calculations in various
modalities is discussed as well.
Recent improvements in virtual reality hardware have brought this technology to the point where easily-obtained commercial equipment can conceivably provide an affordable and relatively unexplored alternative to the traditional monitor and keyboard view of the tactical space. In addition, commercially available game engines provide several advantages for tactical applications. Using these technologies, we have created a concept of a low-cost display that allows for real-time immersive planning and strategy, with suggestions for further exploration.
Information at the tactical level is increasingly critical in today’s conflicts. The proliferation of commercial tablets and smart phones has created the ability for extensive information sharing at the tactical edge, beyond the traditional tactical voice communications and location information. This is particularly the case in Gray Zone conflicts, in which tactical decision making and actions are intertwined with information sharing and exploitation. Networking of tactical devices is the key to this information sharing. In this work, we detail and analyze two network models at different parts of the Gray Zone spectrum, and explore a number of networking options including Named Data Networking. We also compare networking approaches in a variety of realistic operating environments. Our results show that Named Data Networking is a good match for the disrupted networking environments found in many tactical situations
The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS and S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on organizations responsible for PS and S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organizations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies do not provide broadband capability, which is a major limitation in supporting new services hence new information flows and currently they have no successor. There is also no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. The paper at hands provides an approach to tackle the above mentioned aspects by defining an Enterprise Architecture (EA) of PPDR organizations and a System Architecture of next generation PPDR communication networks for a variety of applications and services on broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, inter-agency and cross-border operations. The Open Safety and Security Architecture Framework (OSSAF) provides a framework and approach to coordinate the perspectives of different types of stakeholders within a PS and S organization. It aims at bridging the silos in the chain of commands and on leveraging interoperability between PPDR organizations. The framework incorporates concepts of several mature enterprise architecture frameworks including the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). However, OSSAF is not providing details on how NAF should be used for describing the OSSAF perspectives and views. In this contribution a mapping of the NAF elements to the OSSAF views is provided. Based on this mapping, an EA of PPDR organizations with a focus on communication infrastructure related capabilities is presented. Following the capability modeling, a system architecture for secure and interoperable communication infrastructures for PPDR organizations is presented. This architecture was implemented within a project sponsored by the European Union and successfully demonstrated in a live validation exercise in June 2016.
In the last decade, advances in information and communication technologies have made it possible to diversify the use of sensor networks in different areas of knowledge (medicine, education, militia, urbanization, protection of the environment, etc.). At present, this type of tools is used to develop applications that allow the identification and monitoring of endangered animals in their natural habitat; however, there are still limitations because some of the devices used alter the behavior of the animals, as in the case of sea turtles. Research and monitoring of sea turtles is of vital importance in identifying possible threats and ensuring their preservation, the behavior of this species (migration, reproduction, and nesting) is highly related to environmental conditions. Because of this, behavioral changes information of this species can be used to monitor global climatic conditions. This work presents the design, development and implementation of an architecture for the monitoring and identification of the sea turtle using sensor networks. This will allow to obtain information for the different investigations with a greater accuracy than the conventional techniques, through non-invasive means for the species and its habitat. The proposed architecture contemplates the use of new technology devices, selfconfigurable, with low energy consumption, interconnection with various communication protocols and sustainable energy supply (solar, wind, etc.).
The future Tactical Internet is becoming increasingly virtualized with increasing variation in the type and number of network resources. Capabilities developers offer many choices of technical solutions to implement service requirements. Technology approaches such as software-defined networks, cloud computing and the internet of things enable many different usage scenarios. Network behavior will increasingly be determined through a configuration strategy that determines how resources will be placed in service. As a result, acquisition of and realization of infrastructure to meet demands of network services depends on effective configuration validation solutions. This paper discusses opportunities for applying assurance-driven design to validate the correctness of behavioral requirements for network capability insertion in the Army’s networks.
The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to
define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing
bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM
standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data
transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of
system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and
effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for
space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader
high reliability terrestrial market.
Accurate classification of phase modulated radar waveforms is a well-known problem in spectrum sensing. Identification of such waveforms aids situational awareness enabling radar and communications spectrum sharing. While various feature extraction and engineering approaches have sought to address this problem, the use of a machine learning algorithm that best utilizes these features is becomes foremost. In this effort, a comparison of a standard shallow and a deep learning approach are explored. Experiments provide insights into classifier architecture, training procedure, and performance.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force – South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.