1 May 2017 Fully industrialised single photon avalanche diodes
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Abstract
Single Photon Avalanche diodes (SPADs) were first realized more than five decades ago[1][1], and have now been industrialized for mass production in the 130 nm CMOS technology node by STMicroelectronics (STM). In this paper we present the latest STM SPAD with an excellent NIR photon detection probability (>5% at 850nm), a dark count rate median of 100 cps at room temperature and a low breakdown voltage of 14.2V. The dead time of the SPAD is approximately 25 ns, leading to a maximum count rate of 40 Mcps.

Thanks to the 130 nm gate length of the CMOS technology used and the associated high digital gate density, complex digital signal processing can be implemented allowing fully integrated systems to be realized. The low bias required by the SPAD makes it possible for voltage generation to be achieved on-chip (e.g. charge pumped).

We introduce our first generation time-of-flight system (VL6180) based on the STM SPAD technology, which is capable of ranging up to 60 cm in 60 ms. Ranging capabilities and accuracy are measured using a set of moving targets with reflectance of 5%, 17% and 88% in a fully automated test bed. To the best of our knowledge this was the first high volume SPAD-based device.

To our knowledge this is the first time details of SPAD performance over production volumes and lifetime have been presented.
Conference Presentation
© (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
S. Pellegrini, B. Rae, "Fully industrialised single photon avalanche diodes", Proc. SPIE 10212, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques XI, 102120D (1 May 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2264364; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2264364
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