As one of the major health problems for mankind is cancer, any development for the early detection and effective treatment of cancer is crucial to saving lives. Worldwide, the dream for the anti-cancer procedure of attack is the development of a safe and efficient early diagnosis technique, the so called “optical biopsy”. As early diagnosis of cancer is associated with improved prognosis, several laser based optical diagnostic methods were developed to enable earlier, non-invasive detection of human cancer, as Laser Induced Fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFs), Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRs), confocal microscopy, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Among them, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging is considered to be a useful tool to differentiate healthy from malignant (e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma) skin tissue. If the demand is to perform imaging in sub-tissular or even sub-cellular level, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy have enabled the visualization of molecular events underlying cellular processes in live cells, as well as the manipulation and characterization of microscale or even nanoscale biostructures. In this work, we will present the latest advances in the field of laser imaging and manipulation techniques, discussing some representative experimental data focusing on the 21th century biophotonics roadmap of novel diagnostic and therapeutical approaches. As an example of a recently discussed health and environmental problem, we studied both experimentally and theoretically the optical trapping forces exerted on yeast cells and modified with estrogen-like acting compounds yeast cells, suspended in various buffer media.