15 May 2017 Phyllotactic arrangements of optical elements
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Phyllotaxy studies arrangements of biological entities, e.g. a placement of seeds in the flower head. Vogel (1979) presented a phyllotactic model based on series of seeds ordered along a primary spiral. This arrangement allows each seed to occupy the same area within a circular flower head. Recently, a similar arrangement of diffraction primitives forming a planar relief diffractive structure was presented. The planar relief structure was used for benchmarking and testing purposes of the electron beam writer patterning process. This contribution presents the analysis of local periods and azimuths of optical phyllotactic arrangements. Two kinds of network characteristic triangles are introduced. If the discussed planar structure has appropriate size and density, diffraction of the incoming light creates characteristic a phyllotactic diffraction pattern. Algorithms enabling the analysis of such behavior were developed and they were validated by fabricated samples of relief structures. Combined and higher diffraction orders are also analyzed. Different approaches enabling the creation of phyllotactic diffractive patterns are proposed. E–beam lithography is a flexible technology for various diffraction gratings origination. The e–beam patterning typically allows for the creation of optical diffraction gratings in the first diffraction order. Nevertheless, this technology enables also more complex grating to be prepared, e.g. blazed gratings and zero order gratings. Moreover, the mentioned kinds of gratings can be combined within one planar relief structure. The practical part of the presented work deals with the nano patterning of such structures by using two different types of the e–beam pattern generators.
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M. Horacek, M. Horacek, P. Meluzin, P. Meluzin, S. Kratky, S. Kratky, M. Matejka, M. Matejka, V. Kolarik, V. Kolarik, } "Phyllotactic arrangements of optical elements", Proc. SPIE 10233, Holography: Advances and Modern Trends V, 102331G (15 May 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2265835; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265835


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