We present an overview of our systematic studies of the surface modifications resulting from the interactions of both single and multiple picosecond soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses with materials, such as gold (Au), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), and lithium fluoride (LiF). We show experimentally the possibility of the precise nanometer size structures (~10–40 nm) formation on their surfaces by ultra-low (~10–30 mJ/cm2 ) fluencies of single picosecond SXRL pulse. Comparison experimental results with the atomistic model of ablation, which was developed for the single SXRL shot interaction with dielectrics and metals, is provided. Theoretical description of surface nanostructures is considered and is shown that such structures are formed after laser illumination in a process of mechanical spallation of ultrathin surface layer of molten metal. Spallation is accompanied by a strong foaming of melt, breaking of foam, and freezing of foam remnants. Those remnants form chaotic nanostructures, which are observed in experiments. Our measurements show that electron temperature of matter under irradiation of SXRL was lower than 1 eV. The model calculation also predicts that the ablation induced by the SXRL can create the significant low electron temperature. Our results demonstrate that tensile stress created in LiF and metals by short SXRL pulse can produce spallative ablation of target even for drastically small fluencies, which open new opportunities for material nano processing.