Aimed to establish a Raman lidar system with high-reliability and high anti-interference performance, an newly all-fiber spectroscopic Raman lidar system was proposed for atmospheric water vapor measurement, in which optical fiber couplers, fiber band-width filters and fiber F-P filters constitute the all-fiber spectroscopic system. On the basis of the design of fiber F-P filters and its transmission analysis, the series connection of optical fiber coupler is designed as fiber optics splitter, which is not only to obtain fiber coupling of the input and output of lidar returns, and also to achieve the optimal energy output ratio at three fiber channels. Furthermore, fiber band-width filters are proposed to replace the dichroic mirrors, and the structure of fiber band-width filters and fiber F-P filters is to constitute the secondary cascade filter system, achieving the fine extraction of interested spectrum and high rejection rate to elastic scattering signals. Preliminary test results indicated that, the energy at the three output ports is %sim;5: 2.5: 2.5, and the two fiber band-width filters are provided with the central wavelength of 606nm and 660nm, the bandwidth of 20nm, and the out of band inhibition of >0.5%, which met the design requirements. The design and results will provide a reliable basis for the integration and experiment of the subsequent all-fiber spectroscopic system.