Based on the principle of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), the relationship between the surface roughness and the spatial scattering distribution of the optical elements were studied. First, a series of optical components with different surface roughness was obtained by the traditional polishing processing, and measured by Talysurf CCI 3000. Secondly, the influences of different factors on the scattering characteristics were simulated and analyzed, such as different surface roughness, incident wavelength and incident angle. Finally, the experimental device was built, and the spatial distribution of scattered light was measured with the different conditions, and then the data curve variation was analyzed. It was shown that the experimental method was reliable by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Base on this to know, many studies on light scattering characteristics for optical element polishing surface can try later.