28 December 1993 Proximity-compensated kinoforms directly written by e-beam lithography
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Proximity-compensated kinoforms were manufactured with direct-writing electron-beam lithography in two different resists, SAL 110 and PMMA. The kinoforms were blazed transmission gratings, with periods 4, 8, 16 pm 1 mm by 1 mm size, and a Fresnel lens, with 38 mm focal length and 3 mm by 3 mm size. The compensated gratings performed better than the uncompensated ones: for the 4 pm compensated grating the measured diffraction efficiency was 67%. It was 35% for the uncompensated grating. The Fresnel lens had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85% efficiency. The compensation was made by repeated convolutions in the spatial domain or deconvolution in the Fourier domain using the electron-beam point-spread function.

We also present developing processes for PMMA and SAL 110 resists that are more appropriate for multilevel resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-write electron-beam lithography.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
M. Larsson, M. Larsson, Mats Ekberg, Mats Ekberg, Fredrik K. Nikolajeff, Fredrik K. Nikolajeff, Sverker Hard, Sverker Hard, Paul D. Maker, Paul D. Maker, Richard E. Muller, Richard E. Muller, } "Proximity-compensated kinoforms directly written by e-beam lithography", Proc. SPIE 10271, Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics: A Critical Review, 1027109 (28 December 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.170197; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.170197

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