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1 January 1994 Technology development in the U.S. and Japan: the case of the phase-shifting mask
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The status of American competitiveness in high technology, and in particular the semiconductor industry, has been the subject of concern for some time now.1 With the rise of Japanese manufactures to preeminence in the manufacturing of DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) chips during the 1980's, the fundamental assumptions of modern economic theory have been called into question.2 Various factors have been cited by various authors to account for the recent rise in Japanese competitiveness, including industrial policies of the Japanese government, differences in the cost of capital, investments in research and development, and the requirement of American companies to post financial results quarterly.3 There is, however, a real need for concrete case studies, which can examine the actual history of a technology and establish mechanisms of cause and effect.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Frank Schellenberg, Dan Okimoto, Jim Raphael, and Norihiko Shirouzu "Technology development in the U.S. and Japan: the case of the phase-shifting mask", Proc. SPIE 10273, 64-to 256-Megabit Reticle Generation: Technology Requirements and Approaches: A Critical Review, 102730F (1 January 1994);


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