1 July 1994 Metrology models and simulation
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Abstract
The primary tools for metrology in semiconductor manufacturing are optical and electron microscopes. In recent years the market share of optical linewidth measurement tools have declined relative to scanning electron microscopes. However, optics remains the method of choice for measuring overlay registration, linewidths on photomasks, linewidths for thin film magnetic heads, and linewidths for larger structures. Scanning electron microscopes are dominant in the submicron and especially the sub 0.7 micron regime for linewidth measurement.

This paper will review the field of mathematical modeling for metrology. It will consider light optical and electron optical microscopes. The physics and mathematics for these two types are very different. For light optics the two primary mathematical modeling techniques are eigenmode expansion methods which apply only to structures with a linear symmetry like lines and finite element methods which may be applied to general structures. For electron microscopes the principal technique is Monte Carlo trajectory analysis.

For light optical microscopes, models have been applied to reflective and transmitting systems, classical brightfield, confocal, and coherence probe instruments. For scanning electron microscopes, most of the focus has been on secondary electron detector systems and more recently backscattered electron systems.

This paper will also review applications of these models to the problem of acuracy and linearity. And will touch on the complex issue of the inverse scattering problem.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark Davidson, Mark Davidson, } "Metrology models and simulation", Proc. SPIE 10274, Handbook of Critical Dimension Metrology and Process Control: A Critical Review, 102740F (1 July 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.187457; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.187457
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