Three popular groups of motion estimation methods are presented: i) block matching methods, ii) differential (gradient) methods, and iii) Fourier methods. However, not all of them are suitable for the block-based motion compensation structure specified by the aforementioned standards. Our focus in this paper is to review those techniques that would fit into the standards. In addition to the basic operations of these techniques, issues discussed are their extensions, their performance limit, their relationships with each other, and the other advantages or disadvantages of these methods.
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