A review of the current trends in microlithography is presented including the science and chemistry of this technology. The microelectronics technology has progressed with at an astounding rate during the past several decades which is in large measure due to advances in microlithography, which is the technology used to generate the high resolution circuit elements of today’s integrated circuits. Virtually all integrated circuits are made by photolithographic techniques that utilize 365-436 nm UV radiation. But as continued advances in device fabrication are trying the limits of conventional lithography, new strategies such as deep-UV, e-beam and x-ray are being increasingly required to provide the finer feature sizes of newer devices. This review examines the progress that has been made, especially in the last decade, in the development of new resist materials, as well as the chemistries and technologies that have emerged, in the quest to improve sensitivity, resolution, etching resistance, etc.