27 January 1998 Compliant substrate technology for heterogeneous integration
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Abstract
The recent encouraging results on compliant substrates have made them a promising technology for innovative optoelectronic devices and circuits involving lattice mismatched semiconductors. Different from traditional bulk semiconductor substrates, compliant substrates are flexible templates that can accommodate the lattice strain produced during heteroepitaxial growth. This article discusses one special class of compliant substrates, namely twist-bonded compliant substrates. A twist-bonded compliant substrate contains a 30-100A thin layer bonded to a bulk crystal with a high-angle twist boundary at the interface. Experiment has shown that the twist-bonded thin layer functions as a compliant template to absorb the mismatch strain through elastic and plastic deformation. We have fabricated twist-bonded GaAs and Si compliant substrates and grown InGaAs (1.5% mismatch) and InSb (14.7% mismatch) layers on GaAs compliant substrates and Ge layers (4% mismatch) on Si compliant substrates. Cross sectional TEM results have shown a significant reduction in threading dislocation density for all these films. The crosshatch free InGaAs surface indicates that substrate compliance indeed provides a new strain release mechanism than forming dislocation half loops in the heteroepitaxial layers. The photoluminescence data from InGaAs multiquantum- wells also confirm the superior quality of heteroepitaxial layers grown on compliant substrates. Future research is directed to enhancement of our understanding of substrate compliance mechanisms, improvement of processing technology, and demonstration of critical photonic devices on compliant substrates.
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Yu-Hwa Lo, Zuhua Zhu, Rong Zhou, J. Zhang, Daryl J. Dagel, L. N. Srivasta, Y. Zhou, David Thomas Crouse, "Compliant substrate technology for heterogeneous integration", Proc. SPIE 10292, Heterogeneous Integration: Systems on a Chip: A Critical Review, 1029205 (27 January 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.300614; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.300614
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