This paper reviews scatter based metrology from its conception to its current use in modem industry. In addition to defining the terms used to quantify scattered light a review is given of both laboratory and manufacturing environment instrumentation. The semiconductor industry has taken the lead in making economical use of scatter metrology by developing “particle scanners” which are used for inspection of surface defects on both bare and patterned wafers. The development of these increasingly sophisticated instruments requires the use of scatter models and calibration techniques that are applied to not only surface roughness, but also to discrete defects. These issues are reviewed from their infancy in the early 1960’s to their (still evolving) capabilities as we approach the next century.
John C. Stover, John C. Stover,
"Optical scatter measurements and their application to surface metrology", Proc. SPIE 10294, Optical Metrology: A Critical Review, 1029406 (19 July 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.351668; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.351668