Since the article is written by lawyers, "warranty disclaimers" are required at the beginning. The thoughts presented below are offered as general comments and advice. Application to any given circumstances varies. Consequently, if in trouble, you should have and defer to your own counsel (and, by no means, should you cite this article to them; they will resent it). Finally, the "vast seamless web we call the law" is, in many cases, a confused, self-contradictory, jumbled mess. Each rule has exceptions, which themselves have exceptions. The material below is intended to be accurate but is also, as a practical necessity, incomplete.
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Matthew B. Lowrie, Christopher S. Schultz, "Engineer's primer on intellectual property litagation," Proc. SPIE 10300, Intellectual Property Issues Facing High-Tech Industries: A Critical Review, 1030004 (28 May 2001);