A thorough understanding of the fundamental materials properties forms the basis of any further consideration. We will then review the basic models, the theoretical approaches, and the available experimental evidence supporting the competing views of optical gain in the nitrides. The properties of guided optical modes in nitride waveguides will play an important role. A critical discussion of those results will finally allow us to discuss ultimate performance limits for laser diodes.
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Andreas Hangleiter, "Optical gain in wide-bandgap group-III nitrides," Proc. SPIE 10303, Gallium-Nitride-based Technologies: A Critical Review, 103030A (28 August 2002);