The organizing question I chose for this paper goes to the heart of my conception of the relations of instruments to science: what would you expect to find in the work organization or system for the production of scientific knowledge of late 20th-century advanced science? And how would instruments be utilized in this process? How would they be integrated? Similarly, of course, you can ask the same for earlier periods of the history of modern societies in which science was being produced. Recent studies, including several important ones in this volume, have addressed the question of the production of science in the period of the Scientific Revolution, the advanced industrial revolution of the 19th century, and the large-scale science after post-World War II decades.