Flat panel displays (FPDs) hold the attention of electronics industry. The market is constantly evolving toward the "TV hung on the wall" concept. For more than a decade, it has been understood that the FPD industry is an important part of the electronics industry. Billions are being spent in developing this technology; mostly for consumer electronics products. LCDs represent the FPD technology of choice. Considering power consumption, size availability, and performance, LCDs will continue to dominate worldwide applications for FPDs across all industry segments but particularly consumer product.
Over the years flat panel displays have become an enabling technology for a wide variety of portable electronic products. Constraints on power, size and cost have pushed the leading display technologies to evolve rapidly to the point they are at today. However, designers must still compromise on either price or performance when selecting leading flat panel display technologies for most applications. A new flat panel display technology called "Active Addressing" promises to address the ever increasing need for better performance and lower cost.
Thin Film Electroluminescent (TFEL) flat display panels are finding increasing applications in terminals and monitors used in offices and factories. The unique solid state construction and light emitting characteristic of TFEL panels enable these displays to provide superior viewability and high reliability over a wide range of ambient conditions. After a brief review of the structure and operation of TEEL panels, this tutorial will focus on the electrical, optical and environmental characteristics of EL displays that are employed in a wide variety of office, industrial and hospital applications. The performance specifications of monochrome EL displays used in terminal and monitor products will also be presented. Structural designs and performance of the new multicolor and full-color EL displays will further be described.
As high technology products become more complex, the ability to convey information to the users in a clear and timely manner becomes more important. Display technologies that were originally developed to meet the demands of jet fighters have begun to filter down to commercial products such as automobiles and biomedical instruments. Head-up displays are particularly suited to the display of information such as warning symbols that must be conveyed immediately to the user without his active solicitation, and the display of information that has to be merged with other visual data. Specific head-up display applications and technologies are discussed in the tutorial. New technologies and system concepts are also being applied to head-down displays. Several examples of new head-down display systems are described that could increase the amount of information displayed while reducing the physical volume occupied; improve the optical efficiency; reduce the amount of focus readjustment required, or, provide three-dimensional image presentation. Automotive applications are used as examples but the principles apply to other industries as well. The application of holographic display technology is also emphasized.
LED technology has come a long way since its humble beginnings as the HP-35 calculator display. Today's LEDs exceed the luminous efficiency of filtered incandescent bulbs. The technology is rapidly advancing. New colors and higher efficiencies are available today that were unheard of even two years ago. This technology tutorial will cover the latest advances in LED technology worldwide. New materials, such as AlInGaP and GaN can provide luminous efficiencies over 20 lumens/watt with colors such as blue, green, yellow, and red. This technology tutorial will show how LEDs can be assembled into large area full-color displays for applications like traffic signals, intelligent highway warning signs, and advertising billboards.
Summary Revolutionary technologies achieve rapid product and subsequent business diffusion only when the in- ventors focus on technology application, maturation, and proliferation. A revolutionary technology is emerg- ing with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS are being developed by leveraging mature semi- conductor processing coupled with mechanical systems into complete, integrated, useful systems. The digital micromirror device (DMD), a Texas Instruments invented MEMS, has focused on its application to projec- tion displays. The DMD has demonstrated its application as a digital light processor, processing and produc- ing compelling computer and video projection displays. This tutorial discusses requirements in the projection display market and the potential solutions offered by this digital light processing system. The seminar in- cludes an evaluation of the market, system needs, design, fabrication, application, and performance results of a system using digital light processing solutions.
We present ideas for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs using optics, pattern recognition, and neural networks. One idea is to permanently and irretrievably bond a phase mask to a primary identification amplitude pattern such as a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The complex phase/amplitude patterns cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. Both the phase mask and the primary pattern are separately readable and identifiable in an optical processor or correlator. Tests of the proposed systems will be provided. Subject Terms: Optics, Image Processing, Security, Validation, Recognition, Optical Processing, Phase encoding, Phase masks, spatial filters, Nonlinear Joint Transform Correlators, Optical Correlators
INTRODUCTORY NOTE This brief tutorial is meant to acquaint you with sources and detectors of optical radiation, and assumes that you know virtually nothing about them. It is meant to be read from beginning to end, first in a few hours, and later again as the need arises. Understanding the latter material of this treatise is simplified if you have read the earlier material, so start here, at the beginning. For your convenience, we underline important terms and abbreviations that you should become familiar with, the first time they are used. This will help you remember them.