TO ELECTROCHROMIC AND CHROMOGENIC TECHNOLOGIES The basic property of a chromogenic material is that it exhibits a large change in optical properties upon a change in either electrical field, charge, light intensity, spectral composition, or temperature. This optical change results in a transformation from a highly transmitting state to a partly reflecting or absorbing state, either totally or partly over the visible and solar spectrum. The physical phenomena of interest for optical switching processes can be classified in one of two categories: electrically activated or non-electrically activated. These types are shown in Table 1:
Commercializing technology describes the process of developing commercial products based on state-of-the-art technology. Taking engineering technology from high-capital industries and applying it to commercial markets is a daunting task. This tutorial starts with a review of product development and marketing basics. Then, I describe the additional problems of commercializing technology. I will use the example of commercializing an automotive collision warning radar to illustrate the problems associated with taking military-type technology from the high-cost, low- production environment to a viable product for mass production. I describe how to get the most from limited assets, labor, and capital and what to expect when looking for financial assistance from the government, venture partners, and other companies.
This paper describes a vision system, based on ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) approach, for vehicle guidance on highways. After reviewing related work in the fields of intelligent vehicles, stereo vision, and ASIC-based approaches, the paper focuses on a stereo vision system for intelligent cruise control. The system measures the distance to the vehicle in front using trinocular triangulation. An application specific processor architecture was developed to offer low mass-production cost, real-time operation, low power consumption, and small physical size. The system was installed in the trunk of a car and evaluated successfully on highways.
The misnomer "Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems" means a great many things. It does leave you though, with the impression that something, either the vehicle, or the highway, or maybe both will be intelligent in some way. Simply put, this intelligence has something to do with handling information. This tutorial focuses on the 'smart highway' aspect of intelligent transportation systems, and particularly on how the highway, or infrastructure, acquires information. I will try to answer several types of questions, starting with what measurements are made and why. I will also try to peer into the future to see what new information roadway operators and planners may need as a result of legislative and other changes. Then I will review the variables that constitute this desired information. Finally, I will examine the technologies that are used to acquire the information now, and those that may in the future.
This tutorial addresses three major topics: 1) the national initiative for crash avoidance systems; 2) the sensing requirements for implementing crash avoidance countermeasure functions; and 3) a view of the evolving market for sensor-based products.