An Nd:YAG laser is generally used as the optical source for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) systems, which support a high-power pulsed laser. However, PAI systems based on Nd:YAG lasers have several disadvantages, such as instability against impact and vibration, poor mobility, and large size. To overcome the limitations, we demonstrate a PAI system using a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) fiber laser and an arrayed ultrasound transducer. The fabricated MOPA fiber laser has a variable repetition rate in the range of 1–50 kHz, a pulse width of 10–70 ns, and an output power of 160 μJ. Furthermore, it is stable to impact and vibration, mobile, and compact with a size of 427×250×170 mm3. We achieved PAI 150 times faster using MOPA fiber laser than using Nd:YAG laser with the arrayed ultrasound transducer composed of 128 elements. Therefore, we believe that the PAI system based on the MOPA fiber laser has significant potential for use as a clinical ultrasound imaging system.