Development of laser systems requires optical components with high performance, and a
high-precision double-beam laser photometer was designed and established to measure the optical
performance at 1064nm. Double beam design and lock-in technique was applied to decrease the
impact of light energy instability and electric noise. Pairs of samples were placed symmetrically to
eliminate beam displacement, and laser scattering imaging technique was applied to determine the
influence of surface defect on the optical performance. Based on the above techniques, transmittance
and reflection of pairs of optics were obtained, and the measurement precision was improved to 0.06%.
Different types of optical loss, such as total loss, volume loss, residual reflection and surface scattering
loss, were obtained from the transmittance and reflection measurement of samples with different
thickness. Comparison of optical performance of the test points with and without surface defects, the
influence of surface defects on optical performance was determined. The optical performance of
Nd-glass at 1064nm were measured as an example. Different types of optical loss and the influence of
surface defects on the optical loss was determined.