26 June 2017 Out of lab calibration of a rotating 2D scanner for 3D mapping
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Abstract
Mapping is an essential task in mobile robotics. To fulfil advanced navigation and manipulation tasks a 3D representation of the environment is required. Applying stereo cameras or Time-of-flight cameras (TOF cameras) are one way to archive this requirement. Unfortunately, they suffer from drawbacks which makes it difficult to map properly. Therefore, costly 3D laser scanners are applied. An inexpensive way to build a 3D representation is to use a 2D laser scanner and rotate the scan plane around an additional axis. A 3D point cloud acquired with such a custom device consists of multiple 2D line scans. Therefore the scanner pose of each line scan need to be determined as well as parameters resulting from a calibration to generate a 3D point cloud. Using external sensor systems are a common method to determine these calibration parameters. This is costly and difficult when the robot needs to be calibrated outside the lab. Thus, this work presents a calibration method applied on a rotating 2D laser scanner. It uses a hardware setup to identify the required parameters for calibration. This hardware setup is light, small, and easy to transport. Hence, an out of lab calibration is possible. Additional a theoretical model was created to test the algorithm and analyse impact of the scanner accuracy. The hardware components of the 3D scanner system are an HOKUYO UTM-30LX-EW 2D laser scanner, a Dynamixel servo-motor, and a control unit. The calibration system consists of an hemisphere. In the inner of the hemisphere a circular plate is mounted. The algorithm needs to be provided with a dataset of a single rotation from the laser scanner. To achieve a proper calibration result the scanner needs to be located in the middle of the hemisphere. By means of geometric formulas the algorithms determine the individual deviations of the placed laser scanner. In order to minimize errors, the algorithm solves the formulas in an iterative process. First, the calibration algorithm was tested with an ideal hemisphere model created in Matlab. Second, laser scanner was mounted differently, the scanner position and the rotation axis was modified. In doing so, every deviation, was compared with the algorithm results. Several measurement settings were tested repeatedly with the 3D scanner system and the calibration system. The results show that the length accuracy of the laser scanner is most critical. It influences the required size of the hemisphere and the calibration accuracy.
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Rainer Koch, Rainer Koch, Lena Böttcher, Lena Böttcher, Maximilian Jahrsdörfer, Maximilian Jahrsdörfer, Johannes Maier, Johannes Maier, Malte Trommer, Malte Trommer, Stefan May, Stefan May, Andreas Nüchter, Andreas Nüchter, } "Out of lab calibration of a rotating 2D scanner for 3D mapping", Proc. SPIE 10332, Videometrics, Range Imaging, and Applications XIV, 1033207 (26 June 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2270298; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2270298
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