25 August 2017 An ultra-fast EOD-based force-clamp detects rapid biomechanical transitions
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Abstract
We assembled an ultra-fast infrared optical trapping system to detect mechanical events that occur less than a millisecond after a ligand binds to its filamentous substrate, such as myosin undergoing its 5 – 10 nm working stroke after actin binding. The instrument is based on the concept of Capitanio et al.1, in which a polymer bead-actin-bead dumbbell is held in two force-clamped optical traps. A force applied by the traps causes the filament to move at a constant velocity as hydrodynamic drag balances the applied load. When the ligand binds, the filament motion stops within 100 μs as the total force from the optical traps is transferred to the attachment. Subsequent translations signal active motions, such as the magnitude and timing of the motor’s working stroke. In our instrument, the beads defining the dumbbell are held in independent force clamps utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to update the trap beam positions at 250 kHz. We found that in our setup, acousto-optical deflectors (AODs) steering the beams were unsuitable for this purpose due to a slightly non-linear response in the beam intensity and deflection angle vs. the AOD ultra-sound wavelength, likely caused by low-amplitude standing acoustic waves in the deflectors. These aberrations caused instability in the force feedback loops leading to artefactual ~20 nm jumps in position. This type of AOD non-linearity has been reported to be absent in electro-optical deflectors (EODs)2. We demonstrate that replacement of the AODs with EODs improves the performance of our instrument. Combining the superior beam-steering capability of the EODs, force acquisition via back-plane interferometry, and the dual high-speed FPGA-based feedback loops, we smoothly and precisely apply constant loads to study the dynamics of interactions between biological molecules such as actin and myosin.
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Michael S. Woody, Michael S. Woody, Marco Capitanio, Marco Capitanio, E. Michael Ostap, E. Michael Ostap, Yale E. Goldman, Yale E. Goldman, } "An ultra-fast EOD-based force-clamp detects rapid biomechanical transitions", Proc. SPIE 10347, Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation XIV, 103470Q (25 August 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2277130; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2277130
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