25 August 2017 Simulation of exciton effects in OLEDs based on the master equation
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Electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes is simulated by the master equations for free carriers and excitons. The IV characteristics of both unipolar and bipolar devices can be well reproduced. The luminous efficacies of the phosphorescent OLEDs, which are doped with Ir(ppy)3 in the emission layer, depend on both the triplet generation zone and the triplet transfer capability. Triplet diffusion into the hole-transport layer is primarily attributed to the decline in efficiencies of OLEDs with low emitter concentrations. Higher luminous efficacies can be obtained by graded doping profiles with the merits of broad triplet distribution within and confined to the emission layer. Moreover, triplet-polaron quenching plays a more significant role in the triplet loss than triplet-triplet annihilation does according to our simulations.
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Weifeng Zhou, Weifeng Zhou, Christoph Zimmermann, Christoph Zimmermann, Christoph Jungemann, Christoph Jungemann, } "Simulation of exciton effects in OLEDs based on the master equation", Proc. SPIE 10362, Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices XXI, 103621T (25 August 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2269972; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2269972

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