In the aberration analysis of a wavefront over a certain domain, the polynomials that are orthogonal over and represent balanced wave aberrations for this domain are used. For example, Zernike circle polynomials are used for the analysis of a circular wavefront. Similarly, the annular polynomials are used to analyze the annular wavefronts for systems with annular pupils, as in a rotationally symmetric two-mirror system, such as the Hubble space telescope. However, when the data available for analysis are the slopes of a wavefront, as, for example, in a Shack– Hartmann sensor, we can integrate the slope data to obtain the wavefront data, and then use the orthogonal polynomials to obtain the aberration coefficients. An alternative is to find vector functions that are orthogonal to the gradients of the wavefront polynomials, and obtain the aberration coefficients directly as the inner products of these functions with the slope data. In this paper, we show that an infinite number of vector functions can be obtained in this manner. We show further that the vector functions that are irrotational are unique and propagate minimum uncorrelated additive random noise from the slope data to the aberration coefficients.