24 August 2017 A pixelated x-ray detector for diffraction imaging at next-generation high-rate FEL sources
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Abstract
The PixFEL collaboration has developed the building blocks for an X-ray imager to be used in applications at FELs. In particular, slim edge pixel detectors with high detection efficiency over a broad energy range, from 1 to 12 keV, have been developed. Moreover, a multichannel readout chip, called PFM2 (PixFEL front-end Matrix 2) and consisting of 32 × 32 cells, has been designed and fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology. The pixel pitch is 110 μm, the overall area is around 16 mm2. In the chip, different solutions have been implemented for the readout channel, which includes a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time-variant shaper and an A-to-D converter with a 10 bit resolution. The CSA can be configured in four different gain modes, so as to comply with photon energies in the 1 to 10 keV range. The paper will describe in detail the channel architecture and present the results from the characterization of PFM2. It will discuss the design of a new version of the chip, called PFM3, suitable for post-processing with peripheral, under-pad through silicon vias (TSVs), which are needed to develop four-side buttable chips and cover large surfaces with minimum inactive area.
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L. Lodola, L. Lodola, L. Ratti, L. Ratti, D. Comotti, D. Comotti, L. Fabris, L. Fabris, M. Grassi, M. Grassi, P. Malcovati, P. Malcovati, M. Manghisoni, M. Manghisoni, V. Re, V. Re, G. Traversi, G. Traversi, C. Vacchi, C. Vacchi, G. Batignani, G. Batignani, S. Bettarini, S. Bettarini, F. Forti, F. Forti, G. Casarosa, G. Casarosa, F. Morsani, F. Morsani, A. Paladino, A. Paladino, E. Paoloni, E. Paoloni, G. Rizzo, G. Rizzo, M. A. Benkechkache, M. A. Benkechkache, G.-F. Dalla Betta, G.-F. Dalla Betta, R. Mendicino, R. Mendicino, L. Pancheri, L. Pancheri, G. Verzellesi, G. Verzellesi, H. Xu, H. Xu, } "A pixelated x-ray detector for diffraction imaging at next-generation high-rate FEL sources", Proc. SPIE 10392, Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XIX, 103920D (24 August 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2276966; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276966
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