5 September 2017 El Niño southern oscillation: nonlinear modeling, satellite data, and Fourier analysis
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Interaction between the tropical ocean and atmosphere produces interannual climate variability dominated by the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We perform a Fourier analysis of the El Ni˜no events, which are characterized by positive sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies. We consider an elementary nonlinear model for the ENSO phenomenon: the time rate of change of the SST depends on the existence of a strong positive feedback in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, and on a nonlinear mechanism that limits the growth of unstable perturbations. A key element in this model is the inclusion of the effects of equatorially trapped oceanic waves propagating in a closed basin through a time delayed term. Numerical solution reveals solutions that are self-sustained oscillations. The model is extended by including external influences such as annual forcing, global warming, and stochastic effects. We investigate the range of the parameters that will cause drastic qualitative changes in the climate system, i.e. bifurcation.
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Nour Hadjih, Nour Hadjih, Ahmed Hassebo, Ahmed Hassebo, Yasser Hassebo, Yasser Hassebo, Frank Wang, Frank Wang, } "El Niño southern oscillation: nonlinear modeling, satellite data, and Fourier analysis", Proc. SPIE 10402, Earth Observing Systems XXII, 104022O (5 September 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2274890; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2274890

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