Due to anthropogenic and climatic changes, Carpathian Mountains forests in Romania experience environmental degradation. As a result of global climate change, there is growing evidence that some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Romania over the next 50 to 100 years. In the case of Carpathian mountain forests, winter storms and heat waves are considered key climate risks, particularly in prealpine and alpine areas. Effects of climate extremes on forests can have both short-term and long-term implications for standing biomass, tree health and species composition. The preservation and enhancement of mountain forest vegetation cover in natural, semi-natural forestry ecosystems is an essential factor in sustaining environmental health and averting natural hazards. This paper aims to: (i) describe observed trends and scenarios for summer heat waves, windstorms and heavy precipitation, based on results from satellite time series NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI NDVI and LAI data recorded during 2000-2016 period correlated with meteorological parameters, regional climate models, and other downscaling procedures, and (ii) discuss potential impacts of climate changes and extreme events on Carpathian mountain forest system in Romania. The response of forest land cover vegetation in Carpathian Mountains, Romania to climatic factors varies in different seasons of the years, the diverse vegetation feedbacks to climate changes being related to different vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. Based on integrated analysis of satellite and field data was concluded that forest ecosystem functions are responsible of the relationships between mountain specific vegetation and climate.