2 November 2017 Competition between agricultural, urban, and sand-mining areas at the Paraíba do Sul basin in southeastern Brazil
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This work was performed in the Paraíba do Sul basin, within the limits of the São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, in order to assess the dynamics of the land-use and land-cover changes at the Paraíba do Sul river's floodplains between 1985 and 2016. We focused on investigating the development of agricultural areas used for the production of wetland rice and of areas featuring artificial lakes produced by sand mining. We mapped the land cover in 1985 using images made by the Landsat 5 satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors, which were segmented to produce vectors featuring homogeneous characteristics, and which were classified by means of visual interpretation. Similarly, we applied the maximum likelihood classification and used spectral curve inserts and adjustments to study and analyze the same area using a Landsat 8's Operational Land Imager (OLI) image made in 2016. Our results show significant reduction of areas used for rice crops, and increase in areas featuring sandmining pits. The rice crop areas decreased approximately 43% from 24,131.4 ha in 1985 to 13,789.8 ha in 2016. Over this 30-year period, the area covered by sand-mining lakes increased from 615 ha to 3,876 ha (+ 630%), and the number of lakes increased from 54 to 316. Sand mining and urbanization are the main factors causing the reduction in wetland rice areas. The absence of environmental management actions at the basin interferes with the rice production, which depends on the Paraíba do Sul river's floodplains.
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Carlos C. Ronquim, Carlos C. Ronquim, Guilherme P. L. Cordeiro, Guilherme P. L. Cordeiro, Mariana de Amorim, Mariana de Amorim, Antônio H. de C. Teixeira, Antônio H. de C. Teixeira, Janice F. Leivas, Janice F. Leivas, Sergio Galdino, Sergio Galdino, } "Competition between agricultural, urban, and sand-mining areas at the Paraíba do Sul basin in southeastern Brazil", Proc. SPIE 10421, Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XIX, 104211X (2 November 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2278766; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2278766

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