3 October 2017 Experimental study of dual polarized radar return from the sea surface
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Abstract
Dual-polarized microwave radars are of particular interest nowadays as perspective tool of ocean remote sensing. Microwave radar backscattering at moderate and large incidence angles according to conventional models is determined by resonance (Bragg) surface waves typically of cm-scale wavelength range. Some recent experiments have indicated, however, that an additional, non Bragg component (NBC) contributes to the radar return. The latter is considered to occur due to wave breaking. At present our understanding of the nature of different components of radar return is still poor. This paper presents results of field experiment using an X-/C-/S-band Doppler radar operating at HH- and VVpolarizations. The intensity and radar Doppler shifts for Bragg and non Bragg components are retrieved from measurements of VV and HH radar returns. Analysis of a ratio of VV and HH radar backscatter – polarization ratio (PR) has demonstrated a significant role of a non Bragg component. NBC contributes significantly to the total radar backscatter, in particular, at moderate incidence angles (about 50-70 deg.) it is 2-3 times smaller than VV Bragg component and several times larger that HH Bragg component. Both NBC and BC depend on azimuth angle, being minimal for cross wind direction, but NBC is more isotropic than BC. It is obtained that velocities of scatterers retrieved from radar Doppler shifts are different for Bragg waves and for non Bragg component; NBC structures are “faster” than Bragg waves particularly for upwind radar observations. Bragg components propagate approximately with phase velocities of linear gravity-capillary waves (when accounting for wind drift). Velocities of NBC scatterers depend on radar band, being the largest for S-band and the smallest at X-band, this means that different structures on the water surface are responsible for non Bragg scattering in a given radar band.
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S. A. Ermakov, S. A. Ermakov, I. A. Kapustin, I. A. Kapustin, O. Yu. Lavrova, O. Yu. Lavrova, A. A. Molkov, A. A. Molkov, I. A. Sergievskaya, I. A. Sergievskaya, O. V. Shomina, O. V. Shomina, } "Experimental study of dual polarized radar return from the sea surface ", Proc. SPIE 10422, Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2017, 104220G (3 October 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2278555; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2278555
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