13 October 2017 Damping of surface waves due to oil emulsions in application to ocean remote sensing
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Applications of different radar and optical methods for detection of oil pollutions based on the effect of damping of short wind waves by surface films have been extensively studied last decades. The main problem here is poor knowledge of physical characteristics of oil films, in particular, emulsified oil layers (EOL). The latter are ranged up to 70% of all pollutants. Physical characteristics of EOL which are responsible for wave damping and respectively for possibilities of their remote sensing depend on conditions of emulsification processes, e.g., mixing due to wave breaking, on percentage of water in the oil, etc. and are not well studied by now. In this paper results of laboratory studies of damping of gravity-capillary waves due to EOL on water are presented and compared to oil layers (OL). A laboratory method used previously for monomolecular films and OL, and based on measuring the damping coefficient and wavelength of parametrically generated standing waves has been applied for determination of EOL characteristics. Investigations of characteristics of crude oil, oil emulsions and crude OL and EOL have been carried out in a wide range of surface wave frequencies (from 10 to 25 Hz) and OL and EOL film thickness (from hundredths of millimeter to a few millimeters. The selected frequency range corresponds to Bragg waves for microwave, X- to Ka-band radars typically used for ocean remote sensing. An effect of enhanced wave damping due to EOL compared to non emulsified crude OL is revealed.
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I. Sergievskaya, I. Sergievskaya, S. Ermakov, S. Ermakov, T. Lazareva, T. Lazareva, O. Lavrova, O. Lavrova, } "Damping of surface waves due to oil emulsions in application to ocean remote sensing ", Proc. SPIE 10422, Remote Sensing of the Ocean, Sea Ice, Coastal Waters, and Large Water Regions 2017, 104221H (13 October 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2278575; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2278575

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