More recent experiments and modeling of atmospheric optics phenomena such as inner scale effect, aperture averaging, atmospheric attenuation in NIR-SWIR, and Cn2 modeling justify an update of previous eye/detector safety modeling. In the present work, the influence of the atmospheric channel on laser safety for personnel and instrumentation is shown on the basis of theoretical and experimental data of laser irradiance statistics for different atmospheric conditions. A method for evaluating the probability of damage and hazard distances associated with the use of laser systems in a turbulent atmosphere operating in the visible and NIR-SWIR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum is presented. It can be used as a performance prediction model for directed energy engagement of ground-based or air-based systems.
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Arkadi Zilberman, Natan S. Kopeika, "Atmospheric effects on laser eye safety and damage to instrumentation," Proc. SPIE 10433, Electro-Optical and Infrared Systems: Technology and Applications XIV, 104330P (6 October 2017);