6 October 2017 Extended sources near-field processing of experimental aperture synthesis data and application of the Gerchberg method for enhancing radiometric three-dimensional millimetre-wave images in security screening portals
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Abstract
Aperture synthesis for passive millimetre wave imaging provides a means to screen people for concealed threats in the extreme near-field configuration of a portal, a regime where the imager to subject distance is of the order of both the required depth-of-field and the field-of-view. Due to optical aberrations, focal plane array imagers cannot deliver the large depth-of-fields and field-of-views required in this regime. Active sensors on the other hand can deliver these but face challenges of illumination, speckle and multi-path issues when imaging canyon regions of the body. Fortunately an aperture synthesis passive millimetre wave imaging system can deliver large depth-of-fields and field-of-views, whilst having no speckle effects, as the radiometric emission from the human body is spatially incoherent. Furthermore, as in portal security screening scenarios the aperture synthesis imaging technique delivers a half-wavelength spatial resolution, it can effectively screen the whole of the human body. Some recent measurements are presented that demonstrate the three-dimensional imaging capability of extended sources using a 22 GHz aperture synthesis system. A comparison is made between imagery generated via the analytic Fourier transform and a gridding fast Fourier transform method. The analytic Fourier transform enables aliasing in the imagery to be more clearly identified. Some initial results are also presented of how the Gerchberg technique, an image enhancement algorithm used in radio astronomy, is adapted for three-dimensional imaging in security screening. This technique is shown to be able to improve the quality of imagery, without adding extra receivers to the imager. The requirements of a walk through security screening system for use at entrances to airport departure lounges are discussed, concluding that these can be met by an aperture synthesis imager.
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Neil A. Salmon, "Extended sources near-field processing of experimental aperture synthesis data and application of the Gerchberg method for enhancing radiometric three-dimensional millimetre-wave images in security screening portals", Proc. SPIE 10439, Millimetre Wave and Terahertz Sensors and Technology X, 1043905 (6 October 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2282563; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2282563
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