13 November 2017 Contamination, debris, and shrapnel generation arising from large area laser target interactions
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Typically, plasma physics targets are of millimeter or sub millimeter dimensions and use an irradiance of ~1016 W/cm2 in nanosecond [“long”] pulses or ~1021 W/cm2 for “short” [~500fs] pulse lengths. These conditions lead to target and target mount materials being raised to temperatures that cause changes from the solid state into liquid, gaseous and plasma conditions. Matter from the altered states are then subsequently ejected from the originally solid target location and are distributed in space with a variety of masses and velocities and form layers or regions of contamination, some of which may be deposited on sensitive laser or X ray optical surfaces. If low energy densities are used then there is insufficient energy to change the state of the target and a plume of solid fragments is emitted by the target.
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J. E. Andrew, J. E. Andrew, R. H. Burrell, R. H. Burrell, C. W. Jones, C. W. Jones, A. E. Leatherland, A. E. Leatherland, A. D. Sibley, A. D. Sibley, } "Contamination, debris, and shrapnel generation arising from large area laser target interactions", Proc. SPIE 10447, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 2017, 1044703 (13 November 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2279888; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2279888

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