In order to investigate biological aerosols in the air, a fluorescence lidar has being developed at Laser Radar Center of Remote Sensing of Atmosphere, Xi’an University of Technology. The fluorescence lidar is constructed with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, employing at based harmonic (1064 nm), second harmonic (532 nm) and fourth harmonic (266 nm) simultaneously, with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A 250 mm diameter custom telescope is used to collect optical spectra ranging from 260-1100 nm. In the Infrared detection, an avalanche diode (APD) is used, and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for two linear orthogonal polarization detection at a wavelength of 532 nm. Range-resolved fluorescence signals are collected in 32 channels of compound PMT sensor coupled with Czerny–Turner spectrograph. Based on the current configurations, we performed a series of numerical simulations to estimate the maximal detectable ranges and the minimal detectable concentrations of biological aerosols with various conditions. With a relative error of less than 10%, simulated results show that the system is able to monitor biological aerosols within detected distances of 1.3 km and of 2.0 km at daytime and nighttime, respectively. The developing fluorescence lidar is also capable to identify a minimum concentration of bio-aerosols at about 150 particlesL-1 with daytime operation and 100 particlesL-1 with nighttime at a distance of about 0.1 km. We truly believe that the fluorescence lidar could be spread in the field of remote sensing of biological aerosols in the near future.