Raman lidar has been designed for the measurement of vertical and temporal distribution of aerosol optical properties, atmospheric temperature and water vapor. In order to investigate characteristics of aerosol boundary layer (ABL) height in Beijing, the lidar system had been installed in the University of Chinese academy of sciences from November 2014 to January 2015. The data obtained by Raman lidar have been used to derive the ABL height (ABLH) based on the gradient method and the ABL height is compared with particulate matter (PM) data provided by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China. A total of 15 days of haze, 27 days of pollution and 24 days of clean occurred through the entire period of observation. On haze, pollution and clean days, the average ABLH were 0.6~0.9 km, 0.9~1.3 km and 1~1.9 km, respectively. In contrast to clean days, haze days have lower ABLH, and gradient changes are faster. The measurement results show the height of ABL has a negative correlation with the concentration of surface PM. The rate of PM concentration variations increase gradually with the height of ABL in clean, pollution and haze days. The rate of PM2.5 average concentration in haze days (-242.4 μg·m-3 /km) is more than 2 times than the rate in pollution days (-114.8 μg·m-3 /km), 3 times than the rate in clean days (-77.4 μg·m-3 /km). The rate of PM10 average concentration in haze days (- 224.2 μg·m-3 /km) is more than 2 times than the rate in pollution (-117.6 μg·m-3 /km) and clean days (-90.4 μg·m-3 /km).