We present an optical receiving system for LIF lidar using a direct view spectrometer based on holographic grating prism. The proposed receiving optical system consists of receiving telescope, slit, collimating lens, holographic grating prism, objective lens and ICCD camera. The receiving optical system based on this dispersion structure can not only reduces the optical distortion to offer a high optical efficiency, but also has a more compact structure which is very suitable for spectral dispersion of remote target. The system adopted an intensifier coupled a CCD to make up an ICCD camera. Based on real-time background subtraction algorithm, 60fps fluorescence spectrum can be obtained in real time. System validation experiment uses a semiconductor laser as excitation source to illuminate oil target to radiate fluorescence at a distance of 30 m. The fluorescent signal is received by the set up LIF lidar receiving optical system, and clear spectrum image is obtained. The designed in-line, direct view configuration holographic grating prism spectrometer owns the advantages of high light throughput, less optical distortions, compact structure, small volume and easy operation, which make a practical portable receiving optical system.