Limbal stem cell dysfunction (LSCD) causes morphological and physiological changes in the limbus that result in decreased vision, photophobia, tearing, chronic inflammation and hyperemia, recurrent episodes of pain, and blindness in severe cases. Currently, clinical in-vivo imaging of the palisaded of Vogt (POV) and the cellular structure of the limbal crypts in the human corneo-scleral limbus is accomplished by in-vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). However, IVCM requires physical contact with the limbal tissue that can cause pain and inflammation. In this study, we used a novel high speed, ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) system to generate volumetric, cellular resolution image of the healthy and pathological human corneo-scleral limbus. The UHR-OCT system has a compact fiber-optic design. A femtosecond laser with 790 nm central wavelength and ~150 nm spectral bandwidth (at 3dB) was used to achieve ~1.4 µm axial resolution in biological tissue. The UHR-OCT system also utilizes a high resolution spectrometer (Cobra, Wasatch Photonics) connected to a novel line scan camera with a tall pixel design, 2048 pixel array and a maximum readout rate of 250 kHz. The system’s SNR was 96 dB at 100 µm away from the zero delay line, with ~10 dB roll-off over 1.5 mm scanning range for ~800 µm power of the imaging beam. Volumetric images of the POV and the cellular structure of the limbal crypts were acquired in-vivo and without contact with the limbal tissue from healthy and LSCD and subjects. This study was approved by the University of Waterloo Research Ethics Committee.