13 February 2018 Comparison of low-cost handheld retinal camera and traditional table top retinal camera in the detection of retinal features indicating a risk of cardiovascular disease
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Abstract
Retinal abnormalities associated with hypertensive retinopathy are useful in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and stroke. Assessing these risks as part of primary care can lead to a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Primary care is a resource limited setting where low cost retinal cameras may bring needed help without compromising care. We compared a low-cost handheld retinal camera to a traditional table top retinal camera on their optical characteristics and performance to detect hypertensive retinopathy. A retrospective dataset of N=40 subjects (28 with hypertensive retinopathy, 12 controls) was used from a clinical study conducted at a primary care clinic in Texas. Non-mydriatic retinal fundus images were acquired using a Pictor Plus hand held camera (Volk Optical Inc.) and a Canon CR1-Mark II tabletop camera (Canon USA) during the same encounter. The images from each camera were graded by a licensed optometrist according to the universally accepted Keith-Wagener-Barker Hypertensive Retinopathy Classification System, three weeks apart to minimize memory bias. The sensitivity of the hand-held camera to detect any level of hypertensive retinopathy was 86% compared to the Canon. Insufficient photographer’s skills produced 70% of the false negative cases. The other 30% were due to the handheld camera’s insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the vascular changes such as minor A/V nicking and copper wiring, but these were associated with non-referable disease. Physician evaluation of the performance of the handheld camera indicates it is sufficient to provide high risk patients with adequate follow up and management.
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V. Joshi, J. Wigdahl, S. Nemeth, G. Zamora, E. Ebrahim, P. Soliz, "Comparison of low-cost handheld retinal camera and traditional table top retinal camera in the detection of retinal features indicating a risk of cardiovascular disease", Proc. SPIE 10485, Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV, 1048516 (13 February 2018); doi: 10.1117/12.2291099; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2291099
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